RESULTS AND DISCUSSION of METHODOLOGY in education,population and sampling

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

 

Corporal Punishment and Students’ Academic Performance/Career

 

 Corporal punishment adversely affects academic performance of students. The following table statisticaly illustrates that corporal punishment is associated with academic performace/career of the students that is explicitly depicted by results of this study. The discussion on impacts has been drawn in percentages having a comparative analysis of mild and severe punishment in the form of ratio given in parenthesis. The respondents have evidently enumerated that cropral punishment has effects over the academic performance/career students (65%) while mild CP has aslo adverse impacts (35%). By continuing with the impacts of CP, it is observed that mild and severe punishemnt impedes the class participation, decreases the attendance and increases the drop out rate that is indicated by respondents like wise (39%:61%), 46%:54%) and (24%:76%) respectively. It has been further elucidated by the results that both mild and severe corporal punishment has adverse impacts; although both have a minnow variation yet justifiable that mild punishment has fewer impacts over students as compared to severe. The respondents expressed that mild and severe corporal punishment have negative effects on students‟ confidence, creation of fear and hesitation, hindrance towards learning and resulting in poor academeic performance; that is clarified by the percentage in parenthesis respectively for each indicator i.e. (45%:55%), (44%:56%), (27%:73) and (12%:88%).

 

Table-1 Academic Performance/Career * Corporal Punishment Cross tabulation

P=.000<.05, which means that the result is significant and there is strong association between corporal punishment and academic performance/career. (χ2 = 2.570E2a, df. = 20) Punishment in one form or another, always been found as a mercenary in promoting smooth running of actvities signified by the present study. Results of the research palpably show that mild and severe corporal punishment tends to hinder students‟ creativity, create reluctance among students and prevail inferiority complex among the students with a percentage of (18%:82%), (38%:62%) and (33%:67) respectively. (See Table-1). Resultantly, the overall association of corporal punishment and academic performance/career, which was proposed in the hypotheses, has been judged by applying chi-square test, the value of P=.000<.05, which shows that the result is significant and there is a strong association between corporal punishment and academic performance/career.

Corporal Punishment and its Psychological Impacts on Students

 Another area of this research study is students‟ psychology that is affected by corporal punishment. Information mentioned in the table below illuminates that punishment is mostly regarded as a tool that brings jeopardy to both the social and psychological well-being of the affectee. In such a run the psychology may dominate over the social aspect in the context of its importance in the life of an individual as supported by respondents that the absence of corporal punishment relieves the psychological effects (66%) while the presence of mild corporal punishment also hasn‟t any adverse effects over psychology of the student i.e. (34%). Enacting to the impacts of mild and severe corporal punishment, this research study reveals that punishment; whether mild or severe, has adverse impacts over the mental level of an individual as it causes depression, lowers self esteem of students, causes pessimism among students and prevails apprehension figured in a respective form of percentages in parenthesis as (42%:58%), (36%:64%), (44%:56%) and (27%:73%).

P=.000<.05, which means that the result is significant and there is strong association between corporal punishment and psychological impacts.. (χ2 = 2.499 E2a, df. = 16)

The data further highlights the psychological effects of both mild and severe corporal punishment covering more aspects of human psychology that are interpreted by the respondents. Such effects have been illuminated to the forefront in the form of creating inferiority complex among students, mental harassment, augmentation of aggression and creation of hooliganism with the percentages followed by each indicator, like; (47%:53%), (26%:74%), (20:80%) and (22%:78%) respectively. (See Table-2). Consequently, the pointed data expresses that the relationship of corporal punishment with psychological effects, which was proposed in the hypothesis has been validated and measured by applying chi-square test, the value of P=.000<.05, shows that the result is significant and the relationship is strongly found between corporal punishment and psychological effects on students.

Corporal Punishment and Personality Development

 Personality and its normal and expected development is one the important aspects of individual‟s life that is affected by the application of corporal punishment. The results gained through conduction of this research have a relation with corporal punishment and the course of upgradation in personality development of the students. The information mentioned in the following table authenticates the fact that absence of corporal punishment has no adverese impacts on personality development of the students (65%) while the presence of mild corporal punishment is regarded as a discipline oriented activity for students, which brings punctuality and well disciplined personality as stated by (34%). Information mentioned in the table reveals that application of mild and severe corporal punishment is regarded with numerious disorders in personality of the student that is suppression of students‟ potentials for growth and development, impulsion and emotional instability and necessitation of students towards insurgency and non-compromising behavior and a source of social mal-adjustment with the percentage and ratio of (44%:56%), (43%:57%), (40%:60%) and (07%:93%) respectively. In the context of effects over personality development of students, this resarch study has further dug-out the aspects which are worth-mention for being affected through mild and severe punishment.

In such a run the respondents have pointed out that such punishments engrains the seeds of histility and revenge towards society, creates passive-aggressive behavior, prevalence of hatred among students and causes frustration among students; (22%:78%), (44%:56%), (50%:50%) and (08%:92%) respectively.

P=.000<.05, which means that the result is significant and there is strong association between corporal punishment and irregularities in personality development. (χ2 = 2.506E2a, df. = 24) Analysis of the collected data further indicates that corporal punishment has a vast range of effects over personlity development of the students, which brings passive alteration in the course of personality development. The information depicts that mild and severe corporal punishment brings imitation of passive methods for self satisfaction, creation of self-pity among students and exists rigid and violent nature, which is prominent from the respective percentages in parenthesis i.e. (40%:60%), (44%:56%) and (17%:83%). (See Table-3) Illuminating and analyzing the enumerated results, it is observed that there is a strong association of corporal punishment with personality development of the students that causes irregularities and abnormalities in students‟ personalities, which was proposed in the hypothesis has been authenticated and analyzed by applying chi-square test where the value of P=.000<.05, which shows that the result is significant and there is a strong association between corporal punishment and irregularities students‟ personality development in long terms.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

 

Corporal Punishment and Students’ Academic Performance/Career

 

 Corporal punishment adversely affects academic performance of students. The following table statisticaly illustrates that corporal punishment is associated with academic performace/career of the students that is explicitly depicted by results of this study. The discussion on impacts has been drawn in percentages having a comparative analysis of mild and severe punishment in the form of ratio given in parenthesis. The respondents have evidently enumerated that cropral punishment has effects over the academic performance/career students (65%) while mild CP has aslo adverse impacts (35%). By continuing with the impacts of CP, it is observed that mild and severe punishemnt impedes the class participation, decreases the attendance and increases the drop out rate that is indicated by respondents like wise (39%:61%), 46%:54%) and (24%:76%) respectively. It has been further elucidated by the results that both mild and severe corporal punishment has adverse impacts; although both have a minnow variation yet justifiable that mild punishment has fewer impacts over students as compared to severe. The respondents expressed that mild and severe corporal punishment have negative effects on students‟ confidence, creation of fear and hesitation, hindrance towards learning and resulting in poor academeic performance; that is clarified by the percentage in parenthesis respectively for each indicator i.e. (45%:55%), (44%:56%), (27%:73) and (12%:88%).

 

Table-1 Academic Performance/Career * Corporal Punishment Cross tabulation

P=.000<.05, which means that the result is significant and there is strong association between corporal punishment and academic performance/career. (χ2 = 2.570E2a, df. = 20) Punishment in one form or another, always been found as a mercenary in promoting smooth running of actvities signified by the present study. Results of the research palpably show that mild and severe corporal punishment tends to hinder students‟ creativity, create reluctance among students and prevail inferiority complex among the students with a percentage of (18%:82%), (38%:62%) and (33%:67) respectively. (See Table-1). Resultantly, the overall association of corporal punishment and academic performance/career, which was proposed in the hypotheses, has been judged by applying chi-square test, the value of P=.000<.05, which shows that the result is significant and there is a strong association between corporal punishment and academic performance/career.

Corporal Punishment and its Psychological Impacts on Students

 Another area of this research study is students‟ psychology that is affected by corporal punishment. Information mentioned in the table below illuminates that punishment is mostly regarded as a tool that brings jeopardy to both the social and psychological well-being of the affectee. In such a run the psychology may dominate over the social aspect in the context of its importance in the life of an individual as supported by respondents that the absence of corporal punishment relieves the psychological effects (66%) while the presence of mild corporal punishment also hasn‟t any adverse effects over psychology of the student i.e. (34%). Enacting to the impacts of mild and severe corporal punishment, this research study reveals that punishment; whether mild or severe, has adverse impacts over the mental level of an individual as it causes depression, lowers self esteem of students, causes pessimism among students and prevails apprehension figured in a respective form of percentages in parenthesis as (42%:58%), (36%:64%), (44%:56%) and (27%:73%).

P=.000<.05, which means that the result is significant and there is strong association between corporal punishment and psychological impacts.. (χ2 = 2.499E2a, df. = 16)

The data further highlights the psychological effects of both mild and severe corporal punishment covering more aspects of human psychology that are interpreted by the respondents. Such effects have been illuminated to the forefront in the form of creating inferiority complex among students, mental harassment, augmentation of aggression and creation of hooliganism with the percentages followed by each indicator, like; (47%:53%), (26%:74%), (20:80%) and (22%:78%) respectively. (See Table-2). Consequently, the pointed data expresses that the relationship of corporal punishment with psychological effects, which was proposed in the hypothesis has been validated and measured by applying chi-square test, the value of P=.000<.05, shows that the result is significant and the relationship is strongly found between corporal punishment and psychological effects on students.

Corporal Punishment and Personality Development

 Personality and its normal and expected development is one the important aspects of individual‟s life that is affected by the application of corporal punishment. The results gained through conduction of this research have a relation with corporal punishment and the course of upgradation in personality development of the students. The information mentioned in the following table authenticates the fact that absence of corporal punishment has no adverese impacts on personality development of the students (65%) while the presence of mild corporal punishment is regarded as a discipline oriented activity for students, which brings punctuality and well disciplined personality as stated by (34%). Information mentioned in the table reveals that application of mild and severe corporal punishment is regarded with numerious disorders in personality of the student that is suppression of students‟ potentials for growth and development, impulsion and emotional instability and necessitation of students towards insurgency and non-compromising behavior and a source of social mal-adjustment with the percentage and ratio of (44%:56%), (43%:57%), (40%:60%) and (07%:93%) respectively. In the context of effects over personality development of students, this resarch study has further dug-out the aspects which are worth-mention for being affected through mild and severe punishment.

In such a run the respondents have pointed out that such punishments engrains the seeds of histility and revenge towards society, creates passive-aggressive behavior, prevalence of hatred among students and causes frustration among students; (22%:78%), (44%:56%), (50%:50%) and (08%:92%) respectively.

P=.000<.05, which means that the result is significant and there is strong association between corporal punishment and irregularities in personality development. (χ2 = 2.506E2a, df. = 24) Analysis of the collected data further indicates that corporal punishment has a vast range of effects over personlity development of the students, which brings passive alteration in the course of personality development. The information depicts that mild and severe corporal punishment brings imitation of passive methods for self satisfaction, creation of self-pity among students and exists rigid and violent nature, which is prominent from the respective percentages in parenthesis i.e. (40%:60%), (44%:56%) and (17%:83%). (See Table-3) Illuminating and analyzing the enumerated results, it is observed that there is a strong association of corporal punishment with personality development of the students that causes irregularities and abnormalities in students‟ personalities, which was proposed in the hypothesis has been authenticated and analyzed by applying chi-square test where the value of P=.000<.05, which shows that the result is significant and there is a strong association between corporal punishment and irregularities students‟ personality development in long terms.

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