METHODOLOGY in education,population and sampling

METHODOLOGY

Research Design: 

The study adopted descriptive survey design of ex-post facto type. This is because the actions (corporal punishment) under investigation already existed and were not manipulated in the course of study.

. POPULATION AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUE: 

 The population for this study comprises of 1,250 students of junior secondary schools in karor  Local Government area of punjab. It is from this population that a sample of three hundred students was drawn. The sampling technique used for the school selection is purposive sampling; while the selection of students is on randomization bases. The instrument used for the study is a twenty multiple choice question items with four options lettered A-D. It is validated by specialist in the field of education.

METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS: 

Hypotheses are answered through the use of descriptive statistical design. Frequency count, mean score and standard deviation are used for analysis. The research hypotheses utilize the T-test value to determine its significance at 0.05 level of confidence.

Respondents selected through random sampling from 42 Government Schools karor , District layyah.. 3.1 Research Questions The research questions of our study are outlined in the following: –

❑ How students’ performance affect by C.P in government school?

❑ What is the reaction of students when C.P is applied in government schools? 3.2 Sample of study This research is based on the sample which is collected from the 42 different schools which include 8 Govt Boys H/S, 13 Govt Boys M/S, 6 Govt Girls H/S, 15 Govt Girls M/S. The ratio in percentage of female and male schools is 50-50. 3.3 Analytical Techniques Descriptive statistics is used to analysis the data. The results are presented in the form tables’ graphs and percentage. 4.

DATA ANALYSIS:

4.1 Demographic statistics There are four types of participants. The very first category is FEST 23%, Second is MEST 27%, Third is FSST 20% and fourth type is MSST 30%. These participant answer the questions of questioner. Table 1: Category of respondents

Majority of participants agreed (mean 0.95) with this statement that

corporal punishment effects on the students’ participation. Many participants (49%)

agreed with this statement. Total (84%) participants are agreed with this statement

and some participant (12%) opposed to this view while few participants (4%) are

undecided and that corporal punishment effects on the students participation.

Question no. 2 in the Table of questionnaire interprets the point of view of

participant  about  C.P  effects  the  relation  of  teacher  and  student.  Majority  of

participants agreed (mean 0.55) with this statement that C.P effects the relation of

teacher and student. Many participants (40%) agreed with this statement. Total (72%)

participants are agreed with this statement and some participant (24%) opposed to

this view while few participants (4%) are undecided and that C.P effects the relation  of teacher and student.

 

Question no. 3 in the Table of questionnaire shows the point of view of participant about By C.P student’s nature become inflexible in future life. Majority of participants agreed (mean 0.61) with this statement that by C.P students nature become inflexible in future life. Many participants (37%) agreed with this statement.  Total (70%) participants are agreed with this statement and some participant (24%)  opposed to  this view while few  participants (6%)  are undecided and  that By C.P  students nature become inflexible in future life.

 

  Question no. 4 in the Table of questionnaire represents the point of view of  participant  about  C.P  causes  to  upset  students  psychologically.  Majority  of  participants agreed (mean 0.57) with this statement that C.P causes to upset students  psychologically. Many participants (38%) agreed with this statement. Total (69%)  participants are agreed this statement some participant (26%) opposed to this view while few participants (5%)  are undecided and that corporal C.P  causes to upset students .

 

Question no. 5 in the Table of questionnaire exposes, the point of view of

participant about C.P causes mental sickness. Majority of participants agreed (mean  0.66) with this statement that C.P causes mental sickness. Many participants (35%)  agreed with this statement. Total (67%) participants are agreed with this statement  and some participant (19%) opposed to this view while few participants (14%) are  undecided and that C.P causes mental sickness.

 

Question no. 6 in the Table of questionnaire disclose the points of view of participant about the students feel fear come to school due to corporalpunishment. Majority of participants agreed (mean 1.11) with this statement that the students feel fear come to school due to corporal punishment. Many participants (49%) agreed with this statement. Total (89%)  participants are agreed with  this statement  and some participant (11%) opposed to this view while few participants (0%) are undecided and that the students feel fear come to school due to corporal punishment.

Question no. 7 in the Table of questionnaire reveals the point of view of

participant  about  C.P is  main  cause  of  mentally upset  the  student.  Majority  of participants agreed (mean 0.76) with this statement that C.P is main cause of mentally upset the student. Many participants (57%) agreed with this statement. Total (82%) participants are agreed with this statement and some participant (16%) opposed to this view while few participants (2%) are undecided and that C.P is main cause of mentally upset the student.

 

Question no. 8 in the Table of questionnaire divulge the point of view of

participant  about  the  self-confidence  of  students  is  slow  down  by  corporal

punishment. Majority of participants agreed (mean 1.28) with this statement that the

 

METHODS AND PROCEDURES

The purpose of this research study is to find out the multidimensional impacts of corporal punishment on students‟ academic performance/career and personality development up-to secondary level education. In addition, the research activity is an attempt to know the relationship of corporal punishment with increase in students‟ drop-out level upto secondary level. The study was undertaken in Chakdara Town and adjacent areas of District Dir (Lower), Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. According to District Survey Report (2010), the total population of Chakdara is 58920. Data has been collected from three high schools and five primary schools consisting 3030 population, which were selected randomly from a total of 5 high and 8 primary schools of the area. The population of these schools has been divided into two main strata i.e. S1 and S2, where S1 shows the population of three high schools, coded as (H1, H2, & H3) while S2 shows population of five primary schools, coded as (P1, P2, P3, P4 & P5). The population of S1 is 1462 comprises of students from class 6th to 10th while the population of S2 is 1568 having students of class 1st to 5th. A total number of 360 samples have been taken from both the strata by using stratified random sampling technique through proportional allocation method using interview schedule for data collection that consisted of questions with multiple-options related to corporal punishment and its impacts on students‟ academics, psyche and personalities. While visiting the area, schools‟ principals as well as concerned teachers were convinced and agreed through formal authority from the district education officer. The overall sample frame is given in the following table.

The data collected through interview schedule was analysed by using SPSS. As for convenient analysis and understanding corporal punishment has been categorized into “No Corporal Punishment” denoted by “No C.P”, “Mild Corporal Punishment” i.e. hitting or slapping students with a bare hand, hitting or slapping on the hand, arm or leg, spanking and shaking, pushing and pulling denoted by “Mild C.P” and “Severe Corporal Punishment” i.e. hitting or slapping students on head, beating the buttocks with stick, hitting or slapping students on the face, pulling ears and hairs, make the students sit and stand etc. denoted by “Severe C.P” coded by digits 0, 1 and 2 respectively. Further, the academic performance/career of students as an abstract concept that is affected by corporal punishment has been divided into different variables for valid and authentic measurement.

The variables are “No effect, impedes students‟ class participation, decreases attendance, increases dropout ratio, negatively affects students‟ confidence, creates fear and hesitation, hinders learning capacity, results in poor academic performance, hinders students‟ creativity, creates reluctance, creates inferiority complex”, which are coded by digits 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 respectively during analysis. In addition, responses of the responding have been enumerated in the form of frequencies in the tables while discussion made over the tables includes percentage of the frequencies. Further, the mentioned percentages have been comparatively analyzed by ratio (:) to demarcate between the response for mild and severe punishment.

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